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Paul Klee

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Name: Paul

Surname: Klee

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Date of Death: 1940


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Table of Contents

As an artist ahead of his time, Paul Klee broke from artistic tradition to pioneer a new style of emotionally evocative art. His oeuvre spanned multiple genres, from surrealism to cubism to abstraction, all united by a poetic and musical sensibility. Klee was a visionary who dared to experiment, embracing the childlike and absurd. His art gives form to imagination and the subconscious, taking viewers on a journey into whimsical dreamscapes and strange new worlds.

His life's work reminds us of the power of creativity to uplift the human spirit. While Klee's contributions are firmly established in the canon of 20th-century art, his timeless and whimsical style continues to delight art lovers today. Paul Klee created a vision of entirely his own art, leaving behind a legacy as colourful and enchanting as his masterful paintings.     

Though Klee’s work was controversial during his life, today, he is recognized as a seminal figure in 20th-century art who helped define modernism. To understand the development of expressionism and modern art, you must understand the life and work of this revolutionary artist.   


Paul Klee
Image Credit: MoMA

Early Life and Artistic Beginnings

Paul Klee was born in Münchenbuchsee, Switzerland, in 1879. His father was a music teacher, and his mother was a singer, exposing Paul to art and music from an early age. 

Klee's parents supported his artistic interests as a child. He learned violin and piano but preferred drawing and painting. At age 11, Klee received his first art lessons. He studied in Munich at the Academy of Fine Arts, where he was introduced to many art styles.

After graduating in 1899, Klee travelled throughout Europe, visiting art museums and gaining exposure to works by visionary artists like Gauguin, Cézanne, and Van Gogh. Their expressive and imaginative paintings made a strong impression on Klee. He began experimenting with different styles, incorporating symbolic and creative elements.

In 1906, Klee married pianist Lily Stumpf and they had a son, Felix, in 1907. Klee held various jobs to support his family while continuing to develop his artistic skills. He created many drawings and watercolours, focusing on fantasy and dreams.

Klee's early life and dedication to his craft set the foundation for a prolific career. His creative spirit, imaginative style, and expressive use of colour established him as a pioneer of Expressionism and inspiration to later Surrealists and Abstract artists.

What is Paul Klee known for?

Paul Klee
Image Credit: MoMA

Klee's prolific body of work—numbering over 9,000 pieces— secured his status as a towering figure of modern art. His art spanned many genres, including painting, drawing, printmaking, and sculpture. Klee's oeuvre is renowned for its experimentation, whimsical spirit, and poetic lyricism.

His profound influence on modern art movements from Surrealism to Abstract Expressionism has cemented his legacy as a pioneering master of the 20th-century avant-garde. Klee's timeless and imaginative creations will continue to delight and inspire.

Career highlights

Paul Klee
Image Credit: MoMA

Development of Style:  Expressionism and Cubism

Expressionism, and Cubism were the most significant influences on Klee's artistic style. The expressive and symbolic qualities of Expressionism and the abstract forms of Cubism inspired him. Klee incorporated the unnatural colours and emotional intensity of Expressionism into his work. He adapted the flattened forms, geometric shapes, and collage-like compositions from Cubism. These influences are evident throughout Klee's oeuvre.


Surrealism and Primitivism also impacted surrealism and Primitivism In the 1920s, Klee. From Surrealism, he took an interest in bizarre and illogical juxtapositions and the exploration of the subconscious mind. His work became more unbelievable and absurd. Primitivism, especially African tribal art, inspired Klee to adopt a more symbolic and simplified style. His paintings featured mask-like faces, abstracted animal forms, and an earthy, muted colour palette.

Music and Poetry

Beyond the visual arts, music and poetry also tremendously influenced Klee's practice. He was an accomplished violinist and often compared visual rhythms, harmonies, and counterpoint in music to similar effects in painting. 

Poetry inspired Klee's whimsical titles and his sense of lyricism in art. These diverse influences coalesced in Klee's work, resulting in a highly innovative, poetic style unlike anything else in 20th-century art. His playful, enigmatic paintings and drawings established Klee as a pioneer of modern art.

Paul Klee List of Work

Paul Klee
Image Credit: MoMA

The Bauhaus Years and Mature Style

In 1920, Klee began teaching at the Bauhaus, an innovative German art school that combined crafts and fine arts. Klee taught design, colour theory, and painting. His time at the Bauhaus was very influential in his work. The school emphasized experimentation with materials and forms. Klee explored new artistic techniques, including etching, lithography, and other printmaking methods. His time at the Bauhaus resulted in intense creativity and productivity.

Some of Klee's most famous works were created during this time, including

  • "Ad Parnassum" 

  • "Fugue in Red"

His paintings featured abstracted forms, lyrical lines, and a dreamy, poetic quality. Klee aimed to express music and poetry through visual means in his art.

In 1931 the Bauhaus closed due to political pressures, and Klee moved to Dessau, Germany. His work was labelled as "degenerate art" by the Nazi party, and over 100 of his works were removed from German museums. Klee continued working despite the challenging political climate, though his paintings took on a more sombre, anxious tone, reflecting the period.

What Did Paul Klee Use For His Art?

Klee utilized a variety of media in his work, including oil paint, watercolour, ink, pastel, and etching. His works incorporated calligraphy, abstract forms, and references to dreams and music. Klee pioneered modern art, experimenting with expressive colour, stylized forms, and the subconscious.

Where Is Paul Klee's Artwork?

Some of Klee’s most famous works include


Fish Magic, 

An imaginative and dream-like watercolour featuring fish in a sea of abstract forms and colours. The whimsical, floating forms highlight Klee’s expressive and poetic style.


Twittering Machine

An oil transfer drawing depicting an anthropomorphic machine with bird-like forms. The work embodies Klee’s unique style combining abstraction, whimsy, and references to dreams and music.


In 1911, Klee's artwork was featured in shows across Germany, gaining him critical acclaim and recognition in the European art world. He met members of the Expressionist group Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider) members, who invited Klee to exhibit with them. His first solo exhibition followed in 1914, cementing his status as an influential modern artist.

Legacy and Impact on Modern Art

Paul Klee's pioneering work profoundly influenced contemporary art. His unique artistic style and innovative techniques inspired generations of artists.

Artistic Style,

Klee's work is renowned for its poetic and whimsical style. He employed simple forms, expressive colours, and a sense of humour and fantasy. Klee aimed to portray visual rhythm, movement, and musicality in his art. His style is reminiscent of children's drawings in its playful simplicity, yet it also demonstrates a mastery of colour and composition.

Innovative Techniques

Klee was an innovator who experimented with various media and techniques. He helped develop oil transfer drawing, where a design is made on paper and then transferred to canvas. Klee also incorporated unusual materials, like metal foil, cloth, sand, and wire. His unorthodox methods and use of multimedia significantly impacted modern art.

Klee taught at the Bauhaus, a pioneering art, design and architecture school. His role there allowed him to spread his artistic philosophies and influence students like Wassily Kandinsky, Josef Albers, and Lyonel Feininger. Klee's lectures on colour theory and painting techniques were compiled into his renowned Pedagogical Sketchbook. This work articulated Klee's views on art and creativity and has inspired generations of students and artists.

Lasting Impact

Paul Klee lived and worked until 1940. Despite the challenges of his later life, Klee remained dedicated to experimentation and pushing the boundaries of art. His spontaneous, whimsical style inspired many last modern artists. Klee produced over 9,000 works over his lifetime, cementing his status as a pioneer of contemporary art.

What Type of Art Is Klee?

  • Modern Art

  • Cubism

  • Surrealism

  • Expressionism

  • Bauhaus Style

  • Der Blaue Reiter

How Did the Art of Paul Klee Change the World?

Klee was a pioneer who helped define contemporary art in the 20th century. His poetic, dream-like paintings broke from convention, paving the way for new abstract art styles. Klee’s whimsical and expressive style has inspired generations of artists worldwide. His timeless works are considered masterpieces that have stood the test of time.

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